North America

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Travelling in North/Central America: What You Need to Know

Vacationing in the Caribbean? Travelling to North America for the first time? Whatever the reason for your travel, you should always be prepared for every eventuality. Visit ABC Travel Clinic 4-6 weeks before departure to ensure that you have all the necessary vaccinations and medications before travel, so that you can be safe and protected during your trip. What ABC Travel Consultations can help you with is creating a comprehensive plan for your trip, based on your health and personal information, preventing you from catching any communicable disease during your travels, and providing only with the necessary vaccinations and medications that you may need for your upcoming trip.

Even if you are only travelling to North of Central America for a short time, you need to be prepared and up to date on vaccines to be safe. If you are travelling to Central/North American countries we recommend doing research about crime rates, possible diseases and recommended vaccinations before you leave. This risk increases if you are travelling through rural areas or staying for extended periods of time. With the help of ABC travel Clinic, you can be assured of your safety and security, with prior consultation to your trip. Our experienced health care practitioners are meant to provide our clients with the peace of mind that their trips will be safe from disease and other problems. We offer you comprehensive consultations, taking in every aspect of your health requirements, history, trip locations, stay time and purpose to provide you with an immunization and medical plan for the entire duration of your trip. Below is a general list of the vaccinations you should consider getting before you travel anywhere in North or Central America:

Hepatitis A: This easily transmitted but easily preventable disease is the most commonly contracted preventable disease, and is common in South American and Central American countries, especially rural and developing ones. Hepatitis A is spread most often through contaminated food and water, and sometimes through physical contact, and is common throughout developing countries, in rural areas. Symptoms to look out for are fever, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, tiredness and loss of appetite. Vaccination against Hepatitis A is common and virtually eliminates any risk of the disease. For more information on Hepatitis A, please visit this page.

Hepatitis B: This serious viral illness is transmitted through blood products, contaminated medical instruments and unprotected sec. Adventure travellers, missionaries, Peace Corps volunteers and military personnel are most at risk for infection. Symptoms of Hepatitis B include a sudden fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, dark urine, joint pain, and yellowing of the skin and eyes. Certain people may develop chronic, lifelong Hepatitis B, causing early death from liver disease and cancer. The Hepatitis B vaccine is generally given over 6 months, but can be given on an accelerated schedule of 21 days. For more information about Hepatitis B, please visit this page.

Cholera: Cholera is a disease spread by drinking water or eating contaminated food. This disease is incredibly rare in industrialized countries, but occurs in developing countries such as Haiti, the Dominican Republic, along with parts of Asia and Africa. Symptoms of cholera are watery diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. If left untreated it may cause death due to dehydration, though treatment is simple and reduces mortality rate to less than 1%. For more information about Cholera, please visit this page.

Rabies: This is only recommended for adventure travellers and people who will come into contact with animals, whether work related or not. Rabies is a deadly and common virus spread in the saliva of infected animals. All mammals can get rabies, and people generally get rabies from licks, bites and scratches from infected animals. Rabies affects the central nervous system and ultimately causes brain disease and death, and is found in all areas of the world where animals can be found. Travellers to rural areas or those working with animals are especially at risk. Even if vaccinated, immediate medical attention upon contraction is necessary. For more information on Rabies, please visit  this page.

Typhoid Fever: Typhoid is a serious disease spread through contaminated food and water, and is common in most parts of the world that are not industrialized. Travellers to the developing world, especially Asia, Africa and Latin America are especially at risk. Symptoms of Typhoid include high fever, weakness, stomach pain, headache, loss of appetite and sometimes rash and constipation. In rare cases, internal bleeding and death may occur. For more information about Typhoid Fever, please visit this page.

Yellow Fever: Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus spread through mosquito bites and is often found in South America and Africa. Symptoms of yellow fever include fever, chills, headache, backache and muscle aches. About 15% of people who get this disease can develop a serious illness that leads to bleeding, shock, organ failure and even death. Depending if you are traveling from a country of risk, some countries in the North/Central America may require a proof of vaccination of yellow fever before entry, or re-entry, so plan your travels accordingly. For more information about Yellow Fever, please visit this page.

Routine Vaccinations

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV): Human Papilloma Virus is the most common sexually transmitted disease, and affects nearly all sexually active people at some point in their lives. There are a variety of types of HPV, and most are harmless, while some can cause genital warts or lead to cancer if left untreated. HPV is spread by vaginal, oral or anal sex with anyone who has the virus. This disease is preventable and most sources recommend vaccination at the ages of 10-12. The vaccine lessens and prevents the spread of HPV and cancers caused by it, as well as lessens the likelihood of contraction. For more information about HPV, please visit this page.

Influenza (Flu): Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by the flu virus. It’s spread by coughing and sneezing, and can also be contracted by touching contaminated surfaces. Symptoms of the flu include fever, chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, headache, tiredness. The flu may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Children, elders and people with compromised immune systems are at risk of serious complications such as pneumonia, sinus and ear infections, dehydration and even death. The flu is common throughout the world, with flu seasons usually lasting for a few months depending on the hemisphere of the world you live in. In tropical areas the flu can be spread year round. While this disease is generally not deadly, it is uncomfortable and highly contagious, which is why yearly flu shots are essential to preventing contraction. For more information about the Influenza, please visit this page.

The MMR Vaccine: (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) This vaccine prevents measles, mumps and rubella, and is a necessity before any travel if you have not been previously immunized. While this vaccine is common in Canada, you should check your record as measles outbreaks have been in several countries around the world in the last decade. Protect yourself from these three annoying viruses, which have the capacity to ruin your trip. For more information on MMR, please visit this page.

Pneumococcal Diseases: Pneumococcal bacteria cause a number of illnesses including pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis, and bacteremia. This bacteria is spread through close contact with an infected person, and coughing and sneezing. Symptoms depend on the area of the body that is infected, but will generally include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chills, chest pain ear pain, joint pain, sleeplessness and irritability. In severe cases where persons with compromised immune systems are infected, or the illness is not treated, serious complications can occur. Pneumococcal disease occurs around the world, and travellers are at heightened risk if travelling to developing areas with crowded settings, or areas where vaccination against pneumococcal infections is not commonly used. For more information about Pneumococcal diseases, please visit this page.

Polio: Polio is a disease caused by a virus that affects the nervous system, and is usually spread by person to person contact, and rarely in drinking water or food. Most people with polio do not experience symptoms and recover completely, while some may have symptoms such as fever, tiredness, nausea, headache, nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, muscle stiffness, pain in arms and legs. In serious cases Polio causes loss of muscle control and even death. It’s been eradicated from all but Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan, with rare occurrences spread from these countries. Travellers to developing portions of Africa should also consider this vaccine. For more information about Polio, please visit this page.

TB Skin Testing (Tuberculosis): TB is a disease caused by a bacteria affecting the lungs, but it can occur anywhere in the body. It’s spread through the air when an infected person coughs, speaks, sneezes or exhales. Not everyone infected becomes sick, and TB generally produces severe symptoms including a long-lasting cough, pain in the chest, coughing up blood or sputum, fever, weakness, weight loss, chills, swearing, lack of appetite, tiredness. TB occurs throughout the world, and is most often found in areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and South America. Nearly 1.5 TB related deaths occur every year, making this a serious infection. While there is a vaccine for TB, it has limited efficacy in prevention, which is why the best means of prevention is avoidance of areas where TB is prevalent, and regular skin testing for the disease after travels. For more information about Tuberculosis, please visit this page.

TDaP: (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) These 3 diseases have surfaced many times in the past in Central American regions, and while this vaccination is common in developed countries, some people may not have it. Check your immunization records and make sure you get the necessary boosters before travel.

Diphtheria: Diphtheria is an illness spread through soughing, sneezing and skin sore contact. It is prevalent in developing countries and rural areas. Industrialized countries have low occurrences due to the availability of vaccination. Symptoms of diphtheria include fever, sore throat, neck swelling, skin sores and a thick coat in nose and throat. In severe cases the heart and nerves can swell, and trouble breathing may occur. Diphtheria has a lethality rate of 5-10% in cases with breathing issues. For more information of Diphtheria, please visit this page.

Tetanus: Tetanus is an illness that can occur in non-immunized people after an injury with a contaminated object. The bacteria that causes tetanus is commonly found in soil and can get into the body from any kind of break in the skin. Tetanus causes muscle tightening, stiffness, lock-jaw, trouble swallowing, seizures, fever and high blood pressure. 10-20% of cases are fatal, even when treated. This illness affects the entire world and while international travel doesn’t necessarily affect the risk, people who are doing humanitarian work, construction, demolition and other labour are at higher risk, especially in developing countries. Immunization is the only way to fully prevent tetanus. For more information on Tetanus, please visit this page.

Pertussis: Pertussis, or “whooping cough,” is a contagious disease spread through coughing and sneezing. Symptoms of pertussis are similar to a cold and include runny nose, fever, cough, with later symptoms escalating to pause in breathing, fits of rapid coughs, high pitched “whoop,” vomiting and exhaustion. This disease is most serious for babies and small children. Pertussis is commonly vaccinated against, and the vaccine is routinely administered in most countries. Despite this, it continues to occur in around the world due to lack of vaccination. Unvaccinated travellers through developing countries are particularly at risk. For more information about Pertussis, please visit this page.

Shingles: Shingles is a viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes Chicken Pox. After you’ve had Chicken Pox, the virus will lay inactive in nerve tissue you’re your spinal cord or brain, and may re-activate and cause shingles. This is most common in unimmunized older adults and people with lowered immune systems. The primary symptom of shingles is a painful rash, but it can be accompanied by fever, headache and blistering. The best way to protect yourself against shingles is to get vaccinated against Varicella. Shingles is contagious and may spread the chicken pox infection to anyone who has not been vaccinated or is not immune, so it is recommended that you prevent the spread of the virus by staying away from others. For more information about Shingles, please visit this page.

Varicella (Chickenpox): Chickenpox or Varicella is a disease which is generally seen in children, and is notable for pox, or spots on skin accompanying infection. This disease is more severe in adults, and for this reason adults who have not had Chicken Pox as a child require vaccination. Symptoms of Chicken Pox include rash-like spots, fever, headache and general feelings of illness. The spots and symptoms usually occur after 10-21 days from first contraction, and last for 5-10 days. The spots go through 3 stages, going from small raised pink or red bumps (papules) to small, fluid filled blisters formed over the bumps a day before breaking and leaking, and then crusts and scabs which may take a few days to heal. Most at risk for contracting chicken pox are those who haven’t had it as a child, as a second occurrence is very rare, or those who have not been vaccinated. For more information about Varicella, please visit this page.


References:

Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (2013).  Traveler’s health.  Retrieved from: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases

Government of Canada (2017). Vaccination.  Retrieved from: https://travel.gc.ca/travelling/health-safety/vaccines

Mayo Clinic (2017). Diseases and conditions. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions


Remembering to bring anti-malarial medications when traveling to some regions of the Central American and Caribbean countries. Also, it is strongly recommended to bring with you as anti-diarrheal medications as food handling and sanitation is always prone to contamination with bacteria in warmer climates. In certain portions of North America tics and other insects carry diseases such as Lyme Disease, and it is important to prevent contraction by using insect repellant when in forest/outdoor areas.

Consult with ABC Travel Clinic today to learn more about your trip, and what you can do to be safe. ABC Travel Clinic ensures that you can travel with peace of mind, and without fear for your health. For travel and non-travel related healthcare and vaccinations, medication and medical guidelines, visit us today or give us a call. Book an appointment with ABC Travel Consultations to discuss vaccines, prescriptions, medication and safety. Make sure your upcoming trip will be a good one, and book your consultation today. For more information about our clinic, send us an email or give us a call anytime! To learn more about travel destinations, associated risks, vaccines and medications, browse our website. Remember to be safe during your upcoming vacation, and book your travel consultation with ABC Travel Clinic today. We are located in Markham on Yonge, bordering Thornhill, North York, Richmond Hill & Vaughan.

Call  647-242-2177 or email us at: info@abctravelclinic.ca